Text Steganography Github

The idea is to store information in the first bit. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. Some other work is needed for non-image hidden information steganography, i. I did something weird in the code in that I added one space at the beginning of every fake text and I did the same to the beginning of the real message. Add to Cart. 0x00 前言 上篇对PNG的文件格式进行了分析,介绍了如何在不影响PNG文件的正常浏览下将payload以辅助数据块tEXt的格式插入到PNG文件中。 这次将要介绍一个在图像数据块IDAT下隐藏payload的技巧——LSB隐写. Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. length*8 + offset>image. What is steganography? In a nutshell, the main goal of steganography is to hide information within data that doesn't appear to be secret at a glance. The method by which it works is contigent upon the combination of replacement and displacement strategy. 324 bytes of text could be many things used to setup a secret backchannel communication qcodefag. This way you can hide any text in the form of a bitmap image, which can be later decoded by the same software. 1, for hiding the data, a username and. For instance, if I wanted to send someone else a secret message, I could place the message within a picture, audio, or video file and send it via email or allow them to download the file from my website. A python steganography module to store messages or files protected with AES-256 encryption inside an image. The source code for SCIgen is on Github and is released under the GPL v2. txt -o message. ECG Signal Steganography using Matlab. Using steganography According to The Guardian editor Charles Arthur, Internet users in China have found more technical ways to get around the Great Wall of China, including using Steganography , a practice of "embedding useful data in what looks like something irrelevant. In addition to changing the hidden information type, the cover information type may also vary from text information to even videos. raw download clone embed report print text 6. It is the first database consisting of mobile phone photographs and stego images produced from mobile stego apps, including a rich set of side information. A familiar image should not be used, it is better for steganographers to create their own images. $\begingroup$ Related: "Steganography to hide text within text" $\endgroup$ - David Cary Dec 21 '14 at 15:30 $\begingroup$ If you consider the practicality of such a scheme, it depends highly on what kind of text you expect, and what kind of freedom you have. Cryptography is "the practice and study of hiding. The original author of this code is Yunjey Choi. Similarly if video is used for hiding secret messages, we call it video steganography and so on[1, 5]. Nowadays, steganography can be applied to almost any logical/physical medium (format files, images, audio, video, text, protocols, programming languages, file systems, BIOS, etc. When translating a non-trivial text between a pair of natural languages, there are typically many possible translations. The idea is to store information in the first bit. A typical PDF document maps character codes (e. Swiss crypto tool is created purely in python. The most famous text based steganographic scheme is the acrostic: using the first letters of words / sentences. In this paper, we propose a cancelable iris- and steganography-based user authentication system to provide user authentication and secure the original iris data. Traditionally, linguistic steganography systems encode secret messages in existing text via synonym substitution or word order rearrangements. jar against the directory with your steganographic image as follows: java -jar StegExpose. Build your own steganography tool with python Posted on August 11, 2016 by akshay pai Steganography is the process of hiding text or files like images, documents etc within another file like an image, audio, some other text, etc. I am doing a project on steganography using skin tone detection and DWT. In this technique secret message is hidden in the n letter of every wordth of carrier text. Download Steganography Studio for free. text, images or audio files in another image or video files. {"categories":[{"categoryid":387,"name":"app-accessibility","summary":"The app-accessibility category contains packages which help with accessibility (for example. To view it please enter your password below: Password:. Its content we will use in order to hide secret information. StegExpose is a steganalysis tool specialized in detecting steganography in lossless images such as PNG and BMP (LSB - least significant bit type). The word steganography combines the Greek words steganos (στεγανός), meaning "covered, concealed, or protected", and graphein. a document, an image, or a video, within another non-secret message in the most inconspicuous manner possible. A colour pixel is composed of red, green and blue, encoded on one byte. An AI chatbot powered by a Markovian Network Brain designed and trained for home automation through text messages Reversible Data Hiding - exploring practicality of Steganography Implementation of suggested methodologies in Steganography research and discerning their limitations in real world applications. Easy BMP Code Samples. Pillow for enterprise is available via the Tidelift Subscription. 1, for hiding the data, a username and. Then I spend the next 10 - 15 minutes googling how to remove the last commit I made. Modern natural language steganography methods attempt to apply steganographic methods to text, without relying on modifying specific formatting parameters, such as LaTeX or HTML. So I assume you want LH2. Steganography is also used in command and control protocols for malware including reading content from image files available via sharing and social media sites. However, Digital Steganography was introduced in 1985. Aphriza writes "DirectionsMag. It's a simple but well coded project, too young to be used in a 'production environment': This is a fun project. com, sourceforge. Please refer to the following project to see an online demo of this method:. In addition to being a cat, it also contains the text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. There is a National Geographic video on YouTube regarding the Aryan Brotherhood and how they use to communicate while in prison, across the nation. One of the major transformations used in linguistic steganography is synonym substitution. images) with an invisible signature. B value from the original image and i store all of them in a list called ImgInt. steganography. Objective. The word steganography combines the Greek words. images, text, videos, audios or network protocol packets. Coverless Text Steganography Nov. Transfer data between systems without the communicating devices directly connecting to each other or to a common endpoint. 57 by changing only 0. 2 Steganography Steganography is the practice of concealing a secret message, e. It supports different hashing algorithm and different encryption algorithm too. Pick words in ways that, at first glance, look like real English sentences, using Markov chain algorithms. How can Steganography text size 8MB or more in image Without any losses or problems Steganography is technical stuff, there is no magic, it imply losses. The Text Widget allows you to add text or HTML to your sidebar. International Journal of Computer Science International Journal of Computer Science International Journal of Computer Sciencesand Engineering and Engineering, 2(4), pp. How to Hide Text in a BMP using Python. Hide text in images using steganography! GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. A Brief History of Steganography. This method produces more natural looking and less easily detectable texts than other Markov-based systems. You could contact the author of the code (copied from here), as there seems to be some known problems with the decoding. Look at most relevant Steganography octave program websites out of 27. With Image Steganography you can also encrypt the selected image for better protection. Image Steganography Project Java Source Code November 14, 2015 Ashok Chavan JAVA Major Projects , JAVA Mini Projects , JAVA Projects Image Steganography Project is nothing but the computerized software which is used encrypt and decrypt the message during network communication. Find out what your data looks like on the disk. com, advancedsourcecode. From open source projects to private team repositories, we’re your all-in-one platform for collaborative development. I have been trying to adapt the code to hide data contained in a. Unlike other linguistic steganography methods, these methods allow a hidden message, such as a fingerprint or watermark, to be embedded within a text, without modifying the overall meaning of the text. All Debian Packages in "buster" Generated: Sun Oct 13 02:20:15 2019 UTC Copyright © 1997 - 2019 SPI Inc. Aphriza writes "DirectionsMag. The left image is the original image and the right PNG is the output image with text. Look at most relevant How to decode steganography websites out of 95. Feel free to post any question, article or discussion related to encryption. 6 Thousand at KeyOptimize. This exercise was modified from a similar one found at Interactive Python, though this version encodes an image into another image instead of ASCII text. txt Where "1984" is the secret. Each party receiving a confidential document had slight mutations unique to their own document and given a copy/paste from a fairly small fragment(s) could be used to identify the owner of the version. raw download clone embed report print text 6. For a steganography technique to be effective, it must be resistant to various steganalysis attacks, it must not degrade the fidelity of the image. I taught that is something fishy with their code. And of course use strings (ASCII, UTF8, UTF16) or hexdump -C on the file, before anything advanced. INTRODUCTION Application security is becoming increasingly prevalent during software and especially web application development. My friend sent me an image of this beautiful canyon and asked me to work out where he is. io) - a lot of tools for internet manipulating/scanning (the ZMap Project is a collection of open source tools that enable researchers to perform large-scale studies of the hosts and services that compose the public Internet) (ZMap, ZGrab, ZDNS, ZTag, ZBrowse, ZCrypto, ZLint, ZIterate, ZBlacklist, ZSchema, ZCertificate, ZTee). txt that contains the following string: This is a hidden message!. Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. I have been trying to adapt the code to hide data contained in a. Image Steganography Using LSB in. When this flag is not configured, Gradle builds and packages all available ABIs. When you upload the original patent template, it's in one of the supported file types and in plain text. The key idea behind translation-based steganography is to hide information in the noise that invariably occurs in nat-ural language translation. Vijayalakshmi b and Dr. Although linguistic steganography is one of the oldest forms of steganography , it is still a studied field in the modern, digital age. live/encrypt leave the LM context intact and type your secret message into the secret message box. So far, for a text based data that’s fine, you’ll be able to see by yourself where it starts and where it’s end. With the files selected, click on the Open button, and the file names/paths will be passed back to the Encrypt File (s) dialog. GANs(Generative Adversarial Networks) are the models that used in unsupervised machine learning, implemented by a system of two neural networks competing against each other in a zero-sum game framework. So I assume you want LH2. U+200B(ZERO WIDTH SPACE) is deleted in Gmail when sending a mail from browsers. Messages are uniformly random bits, the context is the first three sentences from CNN/DM articles and the generated cover text is cut off after one sentence. com, mobilefish. Steghide is a steganography program that hides data in various kinds of image and audio files, only supports these file formats : JPEG, BMP, WAV and AU. Zalewski, Nicholas L; Flanagan, Eoin P; Keegan, B Mark. Living invisible ink. It's much the same as the previous example found here except for a few variations. This is a very basic method of steganography that offers some simple obscurity, but not much security. of steganography or by de ciencies of the translation software. TNTCrypter is a free professional tool for hashing and encrypting your files! Do you need extra security? Then this is the right tool for you! The ideal software for hashing all the iso images and files you've downloaded or just for keeping your files safe and secure. Upgrade your. Step 1: Hide Text (ExecuteStreamCommand) Step 2: Fetch File. Online steganography decoding tools found at manytools. There is a National Geographic video on YouTube regarding the Aryan Brotherhood and how they use to communicate while in prison, across the nation. This is a text widget. Quilts with patterns named "wagon wheel," "tumbling blocks," and "bear's paw" appear to. "Text Steganography System Using Markov Chain Source Model and DES Algorithm". Check the best re. It you look at the code, the steganography functions are right after a large piece of text (containing part of the GNU 3. Security researchers warn that steganography, the act of hiding data in other files, is increasingly being deployed by malicious actors. Steganography tools and software. For example, this sentence: Since everyone can read, encoding text in neutral sentences is definitely effective. A small steganography challenge illustrating basic tricks used to hide data inside images. You can use a text widget to display text, links, images, HTML, or a combination of these. Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video. Image Steganography Using LSB in. For a steganography technique to be effective, it must be resistant to various steganalysis attacks, it must not degrade the fidelity of the image. *Handles the addition of text into an image *@param image The image to add hidden text to *@param text The text to hide in the image *@return Returns the image with the text embedded in it */ private BufferedImage add_text (BufferedImage image, String text) {// convert all items to byte arrays: image, message, message length: byte img[] = get. This example shows text being added to an existing image. {"categories":[{"categoryid":387,"name":"app-accessibility","summary":"The app-accessibility category contains packages which help with accessibility (for example. Steganography works by replacing bits of useless or unused data in regular computer files with bits of different, invisible information. CTFs are computer security/hacking competitions which generally consist of participants breaking, investigating, reverse engineering and doing anything they can to reach the end goal, a "flag" which is usually found as a string of text. It's a simple but well coded project, too young to be used in a 'production environment': This is a fun project. vimrc file is where your Vim configurations are stored. Steganography is the practice of concealing messages or information within other non-secret text or data. Last summer, we published a list of 24 free tools to use for data encryption. This example shows text being added to an existing image. A software for concealing textual information inside of an image using OpenCV library in C++. If one argument is given, the program will assume it already has encoded information and will decode it. In addition to being a cat, it also contains the text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The project currently is not compatible with Python 3. Python program to steganography files into images using the Least Significant Bit technics. Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering with a CGPA of 7. the -el option will have the strings command handle 16-bit little endian encoding). 04 and final year project was - Encryption text-based steganography Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering with a CGPA of 7. Specifically, you will access text from the web and social media (such as Twitter and Facebook), run some sort of computational analysis on it, and create some sort of deliverable (either some interesting results from a text analysis, a visualization of some kind, or perhaps a computer program that manipulates language in some interesting way). Hidden GitHub Repository: the text really does look like some sort of nonsense jarbled together. txt) or read online for free. The text can be hidden by making it nearly invisible (turning down it's opacity to below 5%) or using certain colors and filters on it. Cryptography. This is a. I have a brilliant example for you! I've recently seen ONE application of steganography being used to hide a text message within a text document. Experiment results show that ISGAN can achieve start-of-art performances on LFW, Pascal VOC2012 and ImageNet datasets. I taught that is something fishy with their code. Swiss crypto tool is created purely in python. 2017 - Jul. , Prakash B. enc(secretText, coverText) when cover text is in Latin // or Sociopunk. LSB Steganography tool which provides hide ASCII infomation within 24-bit Bitmap images Steganography Tool download | SourceForge. But what I read into here is that ultimately, the purpose of this could be not to conceal the existence of a secret message in a document, but to embed metadata in a transparent, non-obtrusive way. Check the best re. Steganography consists of hiding a secret message within another message. Traditionally, linguistic steganography systems encode secret messages in existing text via synonym substitution or word order rearrangements. Best tools to perform steganography. To run the code given in this example, you have to install the pre-requisites. Je sais pas si niveau sécu ou quoi c'est nickel mais en tout cas le développement est récent et il y a plusieurs contributeurs. Steganography is the art of hiding data in hiding data within non-secret text or data. org, mobilefish. Remember that, by default, strings decode ASCII characters, but you can set it to gather Unicode strings or to handle other types of encoding such as 32-bit big/little endian (e. Steganography is the art and science of hiding messages or other secret information in a bunch of carrier information. Download Steganography Studio for free. Install Node. Whereas the goal of cryptography is to make data unreadable by a third party, the goal of steganography is to hide the data from a third party. Reading the file from the image does the reverse operation. In addition to being a cat, it also contains the text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. Capture the Flag (CTF) is a competition that related to information security where the participants will be test on a various of security challenges like web penetration testing, reverse engineering, cryptography, steganography, pwn and few others more. Module 8: steganography with s-tools youtube. jar against the directory with your steganographic image as follows: java -jar StegExpose. This new variant has been in the wild since at least May 2017 and uses both GitHub and steganography in a possible attempt to obscure its C2 infrastructure or perhaps to avoid detection by having the malware variant first beacon to a legitimate site. The basic workflow is the following: 1. Contact me: @ [email protected] com, mobilefish. If the steganographic algorithms are well designed, the hidden information is really difficult to detect. Steganography is the art and science of hiding information by embedding messages within others. PIL is the Python Imaging Library by Fredrik Lundh and Contributors. II; Handel, T. Didn’t find anything interesting. I am doing a project on steganography using skin tone detection and DWT. Normally, you would change the LSB of the RGB channels in a pixel, they would represent the bits you are storing in the image. Take this security boost and protect your data privacy today. Given that Edward Snowden is still in the news, the United States government essentially extended most of the Patriot Act with passage of the USA Freedom Act, and a report published by the United Nations states that. Implementation Hide Text In Image with encryption. Install Node. Weihui Dai. Unknown [email protected] Go tool for LSB steganography capable of hiding any file within an image stegify is a simple command line tool capable of fully transparent hiding any file within an image. Please read the article on Caesar Ciphers if you haven't already because the Vigenère Cipher is a direct derivative of the former. Look at most relevant Online steganography decoder for bmp websites out of 17. It takes a image object on a Web page and creates a canvas object from the image pixels, so it can alter the image to replace least significant bits of a red, green, blue or alpha channels with an encoded version of the text message. In addition to being a cat, it also contains the text of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. For a steganography technique to be effective, it must be resistant to various steganalysis attacks, it must not degrade the fidelity of the image. Security vulnerabilities are costlier than traditional bugs [9] and may lead to disclosure of sensitive, con dential, or per-. It is capable of both encoding and decoding images. Usually in talks about steganography, the intended use is to evade detection: spying, data leakage, etc. Unlike cryptography, steganography tries to achieve security through obscurity, hidin… Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. zip, and navigate to the resulting directory from a command prompt. Encrypt it using the software, it results in the image output. You could use shorter than average sentences and/or words to increase the efficiency to within your bounds of >2%. The size on disk has increased at a noticeable level. Steganography. This is a text steganography library for JavaScript adapted from Hernan Moraldo's reference implementation for “An Approach for Text Steganography Based on Markov Chains”. Usually when organizer gave us Image, Music, Video, Zip, EXE, File System, PDF and other files, it a steganography or forensics challenge. Instagram and Steganography. Chapter 19 shows the Windows interface I created for the C Image Pro-cessing System. It can store files of any format. ECG Signal Steganography using Matlab. Image Steganography Using LSB in. This exercise was modified from a similar one found at Interactive Python, though this version encodes an image into another image instead of ASCII text. I am developing an Android based application through one can hide text message using password in an image selected from SD card or using camera or he/she can also use an audio file either from SD card or record their own using this application. A Machine Identification Code (MIC), also known as printer steganography, yellow dots, tracking dots or secret dots, is a digital watermark which certain color laser printers and copiers leave on every single printed page, allowing identification of the device with which a document was printed and giving clues to the originator. com,1999:blog-1886709147664456808. This new variant has been in the wild since at least May 2017 and uses both GitHub and steganography in a possible. Remember, the more text you want to hide, the larger the image has to be. Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering with a CGPA of 7. This repository aims to be an archive of information, tools, and references regarding CTF competitions. Cryptography is “the practice and study of hiding. Note that all of. Usage: run steganography. Is the text of all UK treaties and laws public?. The blurb on the various brush strokes and aliasing methods has been removed from this sample as well. PNG formatted steganography file. Natural language is a desirable cover signal given its everyday occurrence, but traditionally it has been challenging to encode large amounts of information in text. Hiding a unicode telugu text in english text. How to hide secret messages in music files? Posted on August 25, 2015. crypto-enigma library and tests: An Enigma machine simulator with display. Network security. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. This project provides a steganography tool that allows to know, use and compare the results of current steganographic techniques. All gists Back to GitHub. Or, more commonly, steganography is used to supplement encryption. Selecting one of these. CTF Resources. Image Steganography Project Java Source Code November 14, 2015 Ashok Chavan JAVA Major Projects , JAVA Mini Projects , JAVA Projects Image Steganography Project is nothing but the computerized software which is used encrypt and decrypt the message during network communication. Git Delete Last Commit. Steganography urges that the cover image must be carefully selected. Is the text of all UK treaties and laws public?. Ive found out that i become more interested in things if i have a book right in front of me, e. Steganography software. 324 bytes of text could be many things used to setup a secret backchannel communication qcodefag. cA, cH, cV and cD are also called LL, LH, HL and HH respectively. Look at most relevant Text steganography in java code websites out of 874 Thousand at KeyOptimize. A Machine Identification Code (MIC), also known as printer steganography, yellow dots, tracking dots or secret dots, is a digital watermark which certain color laser printers and copiers leave on every single printed page, allowing identification of the device with which a document was printed and giving clues to the originator. Reading the file from the image does the reverse operation. Many algorithms exists to accomplish this, but this project uses the least significant bit (LSB) algorithm. Metadata is important. com, quickcrypto. Consequently, functions provided by Stegano only hide messages, without encryption. Pick words in ways that, at first glance, look like real English sentences, using Markov chain algorithms. The gang was created inside a maximum security. codered-steganography. txt and data. While other techniques such as cryptography aim to prevent adversaries from reading the secret message, steganography aims to hide the presence of the message itself. Mnemonic code for generating deterministic keys. Static files are of cource safest to use, but it is for instance possible to store the container inside a text based logfile as long as all new log entries are written to EOF and the logfile is not recycled. Fri 26 September 2014 Category Reverse Engineering Tags CTF Steganography jad OutGuess It looked like a fun CTF, but I did not have the chance to play for too long. There are many reasons to hide information but most common reason is to protect it from unauthorized access and people coming to know the existence of the secret information. Conclusion: cloakify-factory could be very useful for exfiltrating data internally as we saw it has many cipher script that used to the cloaked data file and hence it is a very effective tool for performing text-based steganography. It is a cipher key, and it is also called a substitution alphabet. They also have a steganography tool they call SCIpher : SCIpher is a program that can hide text messages within seemingly innocuous scientific conference advertisements. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Puji Hastuty, Ika; Roesyanto; Hutauruk, Ronny; Sim. Steganography is a technology that hides a message within an object, a text, or a picture. To encode a message into an image, choose the image you want to use, enter your text and hit the Encode button. Python program to steganography files into images using the Least Significant Bit technics. RMP resource for students and programmers to configure, install project and write technical documentation. The concept of steganography without embedding (SWE), which does not need to modify the data of the. Please suggest some tools for the same. Example: Write an Header We can write an header with the seize of the data to recover. 9 Thousand at KeyOptimize. Skip to content. Description. only two characters; the length of each. Aug 07, 2015 Mike Pound of the University of Nottingham to talk about the subject of digital image steganography. Steganography is a method of hiding information and one of the techniques is to hide an image inside a "cover image" by without distorting the supplied "cover image". With the files selected, click on the Open button, and the file names/paths will be passed back to the Encrypt File (s) dialog. This might sound like a very silly question to you all and in fact it is, but, I really got myself confused figuring out exact difference between data and text. This method produces more natural looking and less easily detectable texts than other Markov-based systems. Now you can hide those binary values in original image. I have been working on this for a while but cant seem to get anything to work correctly. 2017 - Jun. Steganography has been used since 440 BC. ECG Signal Steganography using Matlab. Decode steganography png found at osric. For instance, Markdown is designed to be easier to write and read for text documents and you could write a loop in Pug. It is a special branch of information hiding and is considered as an art of science for invisible communication, aiming an imperceptible hiding of a secret message inside a cover image whose existence is known to the sender and receiver only [14]. Outguess - Universal steganographic tool. the secret information. There is a National Geographic video on YouTube regarding the Aryan Brotherhood and how they use to communicate while in prison, across the nation. For this laboratory. Although linguistic steganography is one of the oldest forms of steganography , it is still a studied field in the modern, digital age. The width and height is now based on the existing image, not the entered text. com, sourceforge. Krishnagopal S. The only issue is that he's in Europe and this photo is of. This article offers a brief introduction to how both these methods can be used together. Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one, apart from the sender and intended recipient, suspects the existence of the message, a form of security through obscurity. txt) or read online for free. Swiss crypto tool is created purely in python. Check the. 6 Thousand at KeyOptimize. In addition to changing the hidden information type, the cover information type may also vary from text information to even videos. Usage: run steganography. - Wikipedia In the case of CTFs, the goal is usually to crack or clone cryptographic objects or algorithms to reach the flag. Je sais pas si niveau sécu ou quoi c'est nickel mais en tout cas le développement est récent et il y a plusieurs contributeurs. We propose a novel text steganography method using RNN Encoder-Decoder structure to generate quatrains, one genre of Chinese poetry. More specifically, his latitude and longitude. Steganography. Ascii85, also called Base85, is a form of binary-to-text encoding used to communicate arbitrary binary data over channels that were designed to carry only English language human-readable text. It also… Steganography Studio - Browse Files at SourceForge. But this tool makes sure that the size of the final image is not abnormal. Have a secret that you want to share? Why not hide it in a picture? With PixelKnot, only your friends with the secret password can unlock your special message. Image Steganography tool is another free tool to perform robust Steganography using images. of steganography or by de ciencies of the translation software. Je sais pas si niveau sécu ou quoi c'est nickel mais en tout cas le développement est récent et il y a plusieurs contributeurs. What is steganography? In a nutshell, the main goal of steganography is to hide information within data that doesn't appear to be secret at a glance. Edit them in the Widget section of the Customizer. User can also send a secure email by encrypting their body with private key using this tool. The principle of Steganography is to replace a part of a picture with some arbitrary data, all the trick is to choose what will be replaced. The embedded and extracted part runs perfectly. php(143) : runtime-created function(1) : eval()'d code(156) : runtime-created function(1. Substitution of single letters separately — simple substitution — can be demonstrated by writing out the alphabet in some order to represent the substitution. I have been working on this for a while but cant seem to get anything to work correctly.